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Venezuela

Monetary supremacy: US and European control over the global financial system
Americas, Cuba, U.S, Europe, Will, International Organizations, Middle East, Russia, European Union, Venezuela

Monetary supremacy: US and European control over the global financial system

The dominance of the international monetary and financial system by the United States and Europe constitutes one of the most significant manifestations of power on the contemporary world stage.. This article explores how this joint hegemony has been employed as an economic weapon against countries that challenge Western interests., illustrating the impacts of this dynamic through concrete examples such as Cuba, Russia, Iran and Venezuela. In Cuba, the prolonged imposition of sanctions by the US, with tacit support from European allies, underlines the West's ability to economically isolate a country. The embargo, reinforced by international financial measures, not only severely restricts the Cuban economy, but also its ability to operate within the global financial system, obviously...
Border crisis: Brazil's role in resolving the conflict between Guyana and Venezuela
Americas, Brazil, Guiana, Venezuela

Border crisis: Brazil's role in resolving the conflict between Guyana and Venezuela

The South American region has faced a series of geopolitical challenges that threaten not only the internal stability of the countries, but also harmony between neighboring nations. One of the most significant examples is the growing tension between Guyana and Venezuela, a conflict that not only raises regional concerns, but it also places Brazil in a position where its actions are fundamental to promoting peace and stability in the region. The root of the conflict between Guyana and Venezuela dates back to the 19th century, but it has gained new dimensions in recent years due to the discovery of large oil reserves in the disputed Essequibo region. A Venezuela, facing a deep economic and political crisis, has reaffirmed its territorial claims, increasing tension in the area. Em...
Brazilian leadership in South America: current challenges and perspectives
Americas, Argentina, Asia, Brazil, China, Uruguay, Venezuela

Brazilian leadership in South America: current challenges and perspectives

Brazil, Historically recognized as a leader in South America, currently faces significant challenges in its foreign policy, reflecting a reduced ability to influence regional events. Analyzing recent developments, we can observe how the current Brazilian administration deals with complex issues involving neighboring countries, like Venezuela, Argentina and Uruguay, each presenting different scenarios. The relationship with Venezuela, under the government of Nicolás Maduro, remains a critical point. Historically, the two countries maintained strong ties, but recent internal political tensions in Venezuela and international criticism of the Maduro regime pose challenges to Brazilian diplomacy. Despite being ideological allies, the inability of the ...
Echoes of the past: the territorial dispute between Venezuela and Guyana and the indelible mark of history
Americas, Guiana, Venezuela

Echoes of the past: the territorial dispute between Venezuela and Guyana and the indelible mark of history

The recent escalation of tensions between Venezuela and Guyana around the Essequibo region reignites a territorial dispute that, despite centuries of existence, continues to be a critical element in relations between these two South American countries. This article seeks to analyze the importance of considering historical issues in understanding and resolving this conflict, offering a comprehensive view on the present and future implications of this impasse. The origin of this conflict dates back to the colonial period, when borders were often determined by the reach of European empires, in this case, the British and the Spanish. The Essequibo region, rich in natural resources, has become the subject of dispute since colonial boundaries were imprecisely defined. A Venezuela...
The need to integrate Brazil into regional agendas: the case of CELAC
Americas, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

The need to integrate Brazil into regional agendas: the case of CELAC

In 1983 Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela created a forum to mediate armed conflicts in Central America. At the time, the need for them to create forums for direct dialogue became clear., without the intermediation of other countries, if they really wanted to overcome the conflicts. It became known as the Contadora Group. (name of the island of Panama on which the meeting took place). In 1985 Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Uruguay joined the group and, created the Permanent Mechanism for Political Consultation and Conciliation in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as the Rio Group. The Rio Group is not an international organization per se, insofar as it does not have a secretariat responsible for implementing and monitoring the proposals. However, it is an important space for concertation ...
The energy crisis and the rapprochement between Biden and Maduro
Americas, U.S, Venezuela

The energy crisis and the rapprochement between Biden and Maduro

Article written by João Paulo Costa The possibility of rapprochement between two great enemies of the Americas, the United States and Venezuela, occurs as a consequence of a military dispute distant from Latin Americans, the current war between Russia and Ukraine. When deploying Russian troops to Ukrainian territory, Vladimir Putin used the allegation of a “genocide” in the eastern region committed by “neo-Nazi” troops. Para Volodymyr Zelensky, which received support from other international actors, including the United States, Russian interests go beyond this. By opting for military invasion, Putin sends a message to the adversary: Ukraine's entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, who had been making great strides in Zelensky's administration, will not be tolerated. For the States...
Against whom international sanctions are applied?
Americas, Venezuela

Against whom international sanctions are applied?

Photo by Reuters/Carlos Garcia Rawlins Trade sanctions are a foreign policy instrument used by some countries and have severe impacts. When we read the news that talk about it, it usually talks about trade sanctions against Venezuela, or against Iran or any other country that is currently under this type of action. The point is that the impact is on the country, with special focus on your government, but actually it's about the population. The idea is for the population to suffer the impacts of the suffocation of the country's economy and start to question their government, what should lead to the choice of another president (in democratic countries) or an institutional rupture for the establishment of another government (in dictatorial countries). One of the issues behind this is the humanitarian and societal cost..
The humanitarian cost of international sanctions: the Venezuelan case
Americas, U.S, Venezuela

The humanitarian cost of international sanctions: the Venezuelan case

Venezuelan protesters against the US government. Photo REUTERS/Alexandre Meneghini The recent demonstrations in Cuba reopen an important discussion in international relations: the use of trade sanctions as a form of foreign policy. the president of the USA, Joe Biden, announced its support for the Cuban people, but did not give indications of changing the current embargo policy. Despite the history and symbolism of Cuba in the context of the Cold War, we must remember that this is a more common policy., as seen in the case of Venezuela. The duration of sanctions and embargoes applied to Cuba and Venezuela are clear signs of their failure as an action that seeks to change the behavior of another government. Like this, in addition to not having an effective political result, implies a cost...
The border issue between Venezuela and Guyana
Americas, U.S, Guiana, Venezuela

The border issue between Venezuela and Guyana

Map with the border between Venzuela and Guyana, with projection of the maritime area. Tension on the border between Venezuela and Guyana made headlines last weekend, due to apprehension, by the Venezuelan Navy, of the Guyanese fishing vessels "Nady Nayera" and "Sea Wolf". The chancelleries of the two countries exchanged protest notes. Guyana accuses Venezuela of having committed an “act of aggression” by seizing ships in Guyanese waters. Venezuelans responded that the seizure was legitimate, because it was carried out in waters under the jurisdiction of your country. The dispute predates the independence of the two countries. Since the beginning of the century 19, Spanish and British already disputed the positioning of the border between their colonies in northern South America. In 1835, with Venezuela ...
The ineffectiveness of international sanctions
Americas, Cuba, U.S, Venezuela

The ineffectiveness of international sanctions

International sanctions are an instrument of extreme foreign policy, generally adopted when diplomatic channels do not work as expected. Trade sanctions aim to isolate the country from international trade flows, leading to a stranglehold on its economy. Thereby, it is expected that the local population will feel the limitations and start to pressure their government to change the situation that led to international sanction. Logically it seems to be a good policy, but it is not. Even if the sanction is directed at a particular government, in practice its main impacts are on the population, people who have few, when any, condition to influence government behavior. Limiting access to international goods, as well as the impact ...